Immigration

Canada Immigration Process

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Canada Immigration Process

Moving to a new country is an exciting and somewhat intimidating process. This guide is aimed to help you understand the process in place for you to live and work in Canada.

There are two main paths to Canada. One way is to obtain a permanent residence visa. The other way is to come to Canada on a temporary work permit.

What does it mean to be a Canadian Permanent Resident?

Once you are issued a Canadian Immigration Visa for permanent residency, you have most of the same rights and obligations as Canadian citizens. As the name suggests, you may hold this status indefinitely, so long as you accumulate 2 years of residency days every 5 years. After 3 years of Canadian residency, you may apply for Canadian citizenship. Canada recognizes dual citizenship, so you do not have to give up your current passport.

There are a few differences in practice between permanent residency and citizenship in Canada. The first is that as a permanent resident, you may not vote in elections. The second is that while citizenship is a right that may not be taken away, as a permanent resident, you may be deported if you commit a serious crime.

There are 6 main categories of Canadian Immigration.

  • The categories are;
  • Federal Skilled Worker,
  • Quebec
  • Skilled Worker
  • Provincial Nominee Program
  • Family Sponsorship,
  • Business Immigrant and Canadian Experience Class

Each category caters to a slightly different group of immigrants and comes with its own set of requirements. You can also come to Canada under the Asylum category or the Temporary Foreign Worker Program. Read below to find out which category applies to you.

 Federal Skilled Worker

The requirements of the skilled worker category are intended to assess applicants, who are likely to become economically established in Canada after arrival.

To Read more about Federal Skilled Worker Canada Immigration Pathway, Click Here

 

 Quebec Skilled Worker

According to an agreement between the Province of Quebec and the Government of Canada, the Province of Quebec has its selection process for the skilled worker category of immigration. If you intend to live in Quebec upon arrival in Canada, you will be assessed based on the Quebec Selection criteria and not the evaluation used by CIC. The application process for immigration to Quebec uses a similar points-based system but with slightly different criteria.

Like the federal system, Quebec uses a points-based system to assess potential immigrants. To qualify for a Quebec Selection Certificate, single applicants must score at least 60 points from the ten selection criteria. In contrast, an applicant with a spouse or common-law partner must score a minimum of 68 points.

The selection factors for immigration to Quebec as a skilled worker are:

Read More About the Quebec Skilled Worker Immigration Program Here

 

 Provincial Nomination Program

One way to speed up the process of immigration to Canada is through the Provincial Nomination Program (PNP). The PNP consists of partnerships between the Government of Canada and provincial governments to select individuals who wish to immigrate to Canada and settle in that particular province. Most provinces in Canada have agreements in place to participate in this program. Under the terms of these agreements, provinces may nominate applicants who are in occupations in high demand, or who will otherwise make important contributions to the province.

READ This:  Migrate To Canada Through Quebec Skilled Worker Immigration

To immigrate to Canada under the PNP, an individual must first apply for a Provincial Nomination Certificate to the provincial government where they would like to reside. Each province has different requirements based on their particular needs. To learn more about each province’s requirements, click here. After receiving the Provincial Nomination Certificate, an individual then must apply for a Canadian Permanent Resident Visa. Provincial nominees receive priority processing for their permanent residency applications.

The following provinces currently participate in the Provincial Nomination Program:

  • Alberta
  • British Columbia
  • Manitoba
  • New Brunswick
  • Newfoundland and Labrador
  • Nova Scotia
  • Ontario
  • Prince Edward Island
  • Saskatchewan
  • Yukon
  • Provincial nominees are not assessed on the six selection criteria of the Federal Skilled Worker Program.

 Family Class Sponsorship

The Family Class Sponsorship program allows Canadian citizens or permanent residents who are at least 18 years of age to sponsor close family members, who wish to immigrate to Canada. To sponsor a relative for Family Class immigration to Canada, a Canadian citizen or permanent resident must sign a contract promising to support the family member who wishes to immigrate for a period of three to ten years after their arrival. The length of the agreement depends on the age of the family member being sponsored and the nature of the relationship. To apply for Family Class immigration, the sponsored relative must also sign a contract promising to make every effort to be self-sufficient.

To be eligible to sponsor a relative, a Canadian citizen or permanent resident must demonstrate the financial ability to provide for the essential needs of the sponsored relative, should that be necessary. As a general rule, the sponsor must also be physically residing in Canada to sponsor. An exception is made for Canadian citizens who wish to sponsor a spouse, common-law partner, or children if the sponsor can demonstrate an intention to reside in Canada by the time the sponsored relative lands.

Family members eligible for sponsorship are:

  • Spouses or common-law partners.
  • Parents or grandparents.
  • Dependent children (must be under 22 years of age unless substantially dependent for financial support because they are a full-time student, or because of disability).
  • Children under 18 whom you plan to adopt Orphaned brothers, sisters, nieces, and nephews who are under 18 and unmarried.
  • A relative of any age if you do not have any of the family members listed above.

The Province of Quebec, according to its agreement with the Government of Canada on immigration, has a role in determining the eligibility of sponsorship applicants for residents of Quebec. This role, however, takes effect only after CIC has completed its initial assessment of the sponsorship application.

READ This:  Family Immigration To Canada

 Business Immigration

The Business Immigration Program is designed to seek out individuals who are in a position to contribute to Canada’s economic development through their investment and managerial skills. Individuals who apply under this category have financial resources that will strengthen the Canadian economy and help create more jobs. Individuals with business experience and relatively high net worth may apply under one of three categories of the Business Immigration Program. Each of these categories targets a different contribution to the Canadian economy and has its requirements.

Immigrant Investor Program:  This program seeks to attract experienced business people willing to make substantial investments in the Canadian economy. Applicants under this program must establish a net worth of at least CAD$800,000, and demonstrate that this wealth was legally obtained. Also, Immigrant Investors must invest CAD$400,000, which the government of Canada will return to them at the end of five years, with no interest. To qualify as an Immigrant Investor, the applicant must also have managed a qualifying business, as defined by Canadian Immigration authorities. Applicants destined to the province of Quebec may qualify under a similar Investor Program administered by that province.

Entrepreneur Program: The Entrepreneur Program is geared towards business immigrants who plan to have a hands-on role in their contributions to the Canadian economy. The net worth requirements for the Entrepreneur Program are lower than for Immigrant Investors (CAD$300,000 rather than CAD$800,000). Applicants under this category of the Business Immigrant Program must commit to both management and owning at least one-third of a Canadian business, which will create or maintain employment within three years of landing in Canada. Applicants destined to the province of Quebec may qualify under a similar Entrepreneur Program administered by that province.

Self-Employed Persons Program: The Self-Employed Persons Program is in place for individuals with relevant experience and skills in business, culture, athletics, or farming who are able willing to support themselves and their dependents through self-employed income. To apply under this program, an individual may need to demonstrate experience, net worth, and/or artistic qualifications depending on the criteria under which they are applying. Applicants destined to the province of Quebec may qualify under a Self-Employed Program administered by that province.

Canadian Experience Class

The Canadian Experience Class caters specifically to Temporary foreign workers and international students who wish to become Canadian Permanent Residents. Having obtained a Canadian education and/or Canadian work experience, these individuals have already settled into Canadian society and have established important networks in their communities and their careers.

The Canadian Experience Class requirements are based on a pass or fail model. There are separate minimum requirements for the two types of applicants:

International Graduates with Canadian Work Experience

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Applicants must have:

Completed a program of study of at least two academic years at a Canadian post-secondary educational institution;

Obtained at least one year of skilled, professional, or technical work experience within 24 months of the application date; and

Moderate or basic language skills, depending on the skill level of their occupation.

Temporary Foreign Workers

Applicants must have:

  • Obtained at least two years of skilled, professional, or technical work experience within 36 months of the application date; and
  • Moderate or basic language skills, depending on the skill level of their occupation.
  • An applicant who has met the minimum requirements and is still in Canada on either a Post-Graduate Work Permit or a Temporary Work Permit may apply from within Canada. For individuals no longer in Canada, the applications must be submitted within one year of leaving their job in Canada.

Asylum

As a world leader and champion of human rights issues, Canada also recognizes a responsibility to grant asylum to refugees who face danger, persecution, and violations of their human rights in their country of nationality or habitual residence. Canada’s refugee system offers protection to thousands of such individuals each year. Refugees may be government-assisted or may be privately sponsored by individuals or organizations in Canada.

There are two main components to this program:

Refugee and Humanitarian Resettlement Program: This program is aimed at refugees currently outside of Canada who seek resettlement. CIC selects refugees seeking resettlement, determining first if they may be safe to remain where they are currently located or to return to their country of nationality. Selection depends heavily on recommendations from the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, but also requires security and medical screening.

Asylum in Canada: This program offers protection to individuals currently in Canada who fear to return to their home country. Canada’s Immigration and Refugee Board assess these cases.

Temporary Foreign Worker Program

For individuals who wish to come work in Canada, they may apply for a temporary work permit through the Temporary Foreign Worker Program. As a general rule, these work permits require a valid job offer from a Canadian employer, though there are exceptions. In most cases, it is possible to extend work permits from within Canada, but some work permits have a maximum duration.

In many cases, work permits require that the employer obtain Labour Market Opinion from Human Resources and Social Development Canada, which confirms that the employment will not adversely affect Canadian workers. There are several exemptions to this rule.

Spouses and common-law partners of individuals who hold a Canadian work permit may accompany the work permit holder to Canada. In many cases, spouses are eligible to apply for an open work permit, which allows the holder to work for any employer in Canada.

Conclusion

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